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Why are cockroaches considered harmful:

1.Food contamination

The main problem with cockroaches as pests is that they are carriers of bacteria, viruses and fungi. In addition to being able to transmit salmonella, the pathogen that causes food poisoning, they are also carriers of streptococcus, Clostridium and other substances that cause fatal diseases. These diseases may be caused by food contamination.

Food contamination can occur through their excrement. Cross-contamination also occurs when bacteria are deposited on food. These bacterial organisms can be picked up when removing food (garbage, sewage, etc.) or other raw food sources.

In addition, cockroaches have no specific dietary preferences. They consume a variety of food and goods. They eat almost anything! In addition to the food we eat, they also consume soap, glue, leather, animals, animal manure and dead plants. This significantly increases the possibility of cross-contamination.

2. Allergy/asthma

Because there are allergens in salivary secretions and body parts, we may have allergic reactions to cockroaches. This can lead to adverse reactions, rashes, watery eyes and sneezing.

These allergens may lead to severe and even life-threatening asthma. Non-asthmatic patients still develop cockroach asthma when they inhale allergen cockroaches.

3.Cockroach bites

Being bitten by cockroaches is very rare, but some species bite people. As mentioned above, cockroaches eat almost anything, so they include nails, soft skin and even a strand of hair!

Life Cycle of Cockroaches


Female cockroaches do not lay eggs alone. They reproduce eggshells, also known as oocysts. Ootheca contains many eggs, depending on the type of cockroach. (For example, the German cockroach ootheca can carry about 30-40 eggs, while the American cockroach can carry about 16-20 eggs)


Newly hatched nymphs are wingless and white. Shortly after birth, they change from white to brown and their exoskeletons harden. Before becoming an adult, nymphs must undergo several molting processes. After the last molt, the nymph (depending on the species) will form wings. The duration of the transition from nymph to adult depends on the species. Some may take only a few weeks, while others may take up to a year. For example, German cockroaches are required. After 6 to 7 molting, the cockroaches become adults for 3 months, while after 7 to 10 molting, the Oriental cockroaches need one to two years to become adults.


The life span of adult cockroaches varies from species to species. Its average is about one year. However, factors such as temperature and other environmental conditions also determine the cockroach's viability. Cockroaches are essentially nocturnal animals. They clean up water and food at night. They can also reproduce very quickly, so when overcrowding occurs, some cockroaches are forced to be cleared during the day.

Signs of cockroach infestation


Cockroach dung is one of the definite signs of cockroach infestation. According to the size of cockroaches, cockroach manure can be the size of rice or coffee powder. The colour of feces is usually black, ranging from black to dark brown.

Rat excrement and cockroach excrement may be similar in size, but they are visually different. Rat excrement has a tip, while cockroach excrement is cylindrical, with ridges along the side. The volume of excrement can also be used as an indicator of the number of cockroaches you're dealing with.


One of the signs of cockroach infection is through odor. Odor is usually described as mildew and greasy. This odor is caused by pheromones produced by cockroaches. Pheromones are chemical signals that serve two purposes as a form of communication between cockroaches:

(i) Aggregated pheromones

Although cockroaches are a group life, unlike termite groups, which have an organized social structure, different members play different roles. Cockroaches do not have an organized social structure, they prefer group life. Therefore, when a cockroach finds a good place to live, it indicates that it has the odor of pheromones to attract others.

(ii) Attraction to partners

Pheromones are also used to attract males to mate. Female cockroaches emit pheromones that attract groups of male cockroaches. Humans can smell these pheromones, but for us, it's just a nasty smell. Dead cockroaches also emit another odor called the stench of death. The stench of death is due to oleic acid produced by the carcass of cockroaches. This odor can be used as a warning signal to other cockroaches, indicating that there is a death threat around the area.


Ootheca is also commonly considered a marker of infection. This is because the presence of ootheca indicates that there are cockroaches nearby.

Breeding methods of cockroaches

There are three reproductive methods, in which eggs are hatched according to cockroach species.

1.Egg laying(American, Brown ribbon and Oriental cockroach)

Egg species squeeze their ootheca and store it near food sources. Sometimes, shortly after the egg is formed (brown), the female secretes saliva through the mouth to stick it to the surface. One or two days after deposition, embryonic development (egg development) continues, and the egg hardens from light brown to black. Otheca of egg species is usually hard and hard because it helps protect eggs from drying (dehydration) in America, where Oriental and brown banded cockroaches are egg species.

2.Oviparity(German cockroach, Madagascar hissing cockroach)

Compared with oviposition, eggs are laid in the abdomen of female cockroaches to keep their ovaries until they are ready to hatch. Ovidogenetic animals are divided into two groups due to slight differences in embryogenesis:

(a) Pseudooocytic sex

Pseudoembryonic organisms will first squeeze out the ovaries, rotate them and reabsorb them back into the uterus. This must be done in order for embryogenesis to occur. During embryogenesis, the eggs will have enough yolk to develop and receive water from their mothers. When the nymph is ready to hatch, ootheca will be completely squeezed out. If not squeezed, nymphs will emerge from the female abdomen. Therefore, the ovaries of pseudoovum species are thinner, less rigid and permeable than those of oviposited eggs. One of the common species that use this spawning mechanism is the German cockroach.

(b) Real egg birthmarks

Real embryonic organisms do not develop eggs, but deposit them directly from the fallopian tube into the brood sac in a random manner. During embryogenesis, the egg has enough yolk for development and will get water from the mother. An example of a true egg-and-embryo species is the hissing cockroach in Madagascar.

3.Viviparous(Pacific beetle and cockroach)

Unlike oviposition and oviposition, embryogenesis is a highly evolved oviposition mechanism in cockroach species. This is due to the high nutritional "milk" produced by the mother to the embryo, which is a rare phenomenon in cockroach species.

Fetal species often have small oocysts and usually partially squeeze out and retract into the uterus. Eggs are wrapped in incomplete membranes. During embryogenesis, eggs do not have enough yolk and water to fully develop. During pregnancy, however, embryos can obtain high-protein "milk" from their mothers through the uterine wall known as pleuropneumonia. Using this highly evolved spawning mechanism is Pacific Beetle Cockroach.

You know what?

Cockroaches can live for a week without a head because they have an open circulatory system that allows them to breathe through small holes in each body part. Therefore, they do not rely on their mouth or head to breathe. A cockroach dies a week later because without a mouth, it can't drink water and will die of thirst.